· Turnspit dogs were used as a source of power; they turned a treadmill connected to a roasting spit.
· Service or assistance dogs help people with various disabilities in everyday tasks. Some examples include guide dogs for the visually impaired, and hearing dogs for the hearing impaired.
· Therapy dogs visit people who are incapacitated or prevented in some way from having freedom of movement; these dogs provide cheer and entertainment for the elderly in retirement facilities, the ill and injured in hospitals, and so on.
· Rescue dogs assist people who are in difficult situations, such as in the water after a boat disaster.
· Search dogs locate people who are missing; lost in the wilderness, covered in snow avalanches, buried under collapsed buildings, etc. using their amazing sense of smell.
· Herding dogs are still invaluable to sheep and cattle handlers around the world for mustering; different breeds are used for the different. A well trained dog can adapt to control any sort of domestic and many wild animals.
· Sled dogs, although today primarily used in sporting events, still can assist in transporting people and supplies in rugged, snowy terrain.
· Hunting dogs assist hunters in finding, tracking, and retrieving game, or in routing vermin.
· Guard dogs and watch dogs help to protect private or public property, either in living or used for patrols, as in the military and with security firms.
· Tracking dogs help find lost people and animals or track down possible criminals.
· Cadaver dog or Human Remains Detection Dogs use their scenting ability to discover bodies or human remains at the scenes of disasters, crimes, accidents, or suicides.
· Detection dogs of a wide variety help to detect termites in homes, illegal substances in luggage, bombs, chemicals, and many other substances.
· War Dogs or K9 Corps are used by armed forces in many of the same roles as civilian working dogs, but in a military context. In addition, specialized military tasks such as mine detection or wire laying have been assigned to dogs. Military Working Dog is the more formal, current term for dogs trained for use in military tasks.
· Police dogs, also sometimes called K9 Units, are usually trained to track or immobilize possible criminals while assisting officers in making arrests or investigating the scene of a crime. Some are even specially trained for anti-terrorist units, as in Austria.
· Dogs are sometimes used in programs to assist children in learning how to read. The Reading With Rover program in Washington pairs trained dogs with children who read aloud to the dog. This process builds confidence and reduces stress.